Timelines to Visualize History

A Project by the Department of Medieval English Literature and Historical Linguistics, University of Düsseldorf

Begin End Event Description Keywords Related Events
1189 1199

Richard I

Richard I rebelled against his father Henry II and overthrew him with the help of the French king Philip II. While Richard participated in the third crusade, he left his throne to his brother John Lackland who then conspired against him with his former ally Philip II. When he returned home, he reconciled with his brother and went to war against France. Winning many decisive battles during the crusade and being pious and righteous earned him the famous title of Cœur de Lion - the lionhearted.

Richard, son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, also called 'the lionhearted' due to his reputation as a great military leader and warrior, was to have his mother's inheritance, Aquitaine while Brittany and Ireland were given to his brothers Geoffrey and John. Yet, seeing, that his father still held all the power and clearly favoured John, he formed an alliance with the French King Philip II Augustus. This brought his father Henry to his knees and Richard succeeded him on the throne.

Richard was a central commander in the third crusade and scored decisive victories, until agreeing to a truce with Saladin, when he heard that his proxy John had formed a pact with Philip II against him. Intrigues of the English court had deposed his lord chancellor William de Longchamp in favour of John Lackland.

Upon returning home, he reconciled with his brother and began his reconquest of Normandy against Philip II. Richard died on 6 April 1199 after being hit by a crossbow-bolt or an arrow.
History, Middle English Period, Political, Religious, Kings + Rulers