Second Phase of the 100 Years' War
Henry V resumed the 100 Years' War when he invaded France in 1415. After winning the decisive Battle of Agincourt, he gained control over all of France north of the Loire in the following years. With the Treaty of Troyes the French king declared his own son illegitimate and recognized Henry V as his heir and regent, until under Joan of Arc, the French forces freed Orléans, defeated the English and drove them north. From 1449 onwards, the French regained nearly all territories and eventually the war ended in 1453 without any peace treaty.
After a time of peace under the reign of Henry IV, Henry V (1413-22) resumed the war twelve years before the truce was intended to end and invaded France in 1415. He seized the French port of Harfleur, when being intercepted in his retreat to Calais by the French. The English won the decisive and famous Battle of Agincourt during the second phase of the 100 Years' War because of their lightly equipped archers, despite being outnumbered four times by the French. Henry took Rouen and Paris and controlled all of France north of the Loire in the following years.
With the Treaty of Troyes (1420) the French king declared his own son illegitimate and recognized Henry V as his heir and regent. Henry married the French king's daughter, Catherine of Valois, before returning triumphantly to England in 1421. He died a year later, leaving his kingdom to his one-year-old son Henry VI. The French king died in the same year and the dauphin claimed the french throne, while a regent ruled the kingdom in the north in the name of Henry VI. The English invaded the south of France and besieged the city of Orléans in 1428, which was to become the turning point of the 100 Year's war.
Under Joan of Arc (1412-31), the French forces freed Orléans, defeated the English and drove them north. Charles VII successively regained control over the territories which his father had conceded to the English and in 1435, he entered into an alliance with the House of Burgundy, thus smashing the support of the English, and took Paris in the following year.
From 1449 onwards, the French regained nearly all territories they had lost to the English in the 1420s and only Calais remained under English control when the war practically came to its end in 1453 without any peace treaty. The English claim to the French throne had ended forever.
|History, 100 Years War, Middle English Period, Political|